What limits do we want to impose, if any, on people bringing their own "cultural practices" to our country? If we impose limitations, can these limitations be regarded as rooted in "Western values"?
Muhammad Ali (Cassius Marcellus Clay)
Nation of Islam
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
Comment on the following statement: "Multiculturalism is soft assimilation."
What does Tariq Ramadan suggest as an alternative to (song-and-food) multiculturalism?
World Music parallels romantic orientalism in a number of ways. At the same time it functions in the context of western profit and power, reduces the non-West into a single category, opens up the West to knowledge about the non-West, and provides a means to critique the West.
Mozart, Turkish March 1783?, Piano Sonata no. 11. Learn to recognize.
Rimsky-Korsakoff, Scheherezade 1888
Erik Satie, Gnossiennes (heard gamelan at 1889 World’s Fair) 1890-93?
The Rolling Stones, Paint It Black
What does David Byrne think of world music (recall the youtube video played in class)? Comment on what he says.
Why is world music a "capitalist dream" according to Feld?
Who were some of Miriam Makeba's famous husbands, friends, and admirers?
What was particularly controversial about Psy?
Tell the story of "Rorogwella." What lessons do you see in it?
The non-West (we talked specifically about North Africa and the Muslim "Orient") was seen as "easy" about sexuality in colonial times, because privileged western men were able to exploit local people sexually, and frequented prostitues of both genders, including very young people.
With capitalism came the emphasis on individual spirituality. The quest for inner peace often borrowed from Hindu and Buddhist practices, sometimes divorced from their complex contexts to fit with western notions of fighting stress and unhappiness. Some of these westernized practices were/are also successful in the East.
Lehnert and Landrock - learn to recognize the type of photography they did
Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
Transcendental Meditation (TM)
Ingres, The Great Odalisque (1814) and Odalisque with Slave (1839) - learn to recognize
Rudolf Valentino, The Sheik (1921)
Talal Asad, Formations of the Secular
Raymond Schwab, The Oriental Renaissance
Anquetil-Duperron and the Zend Avesta
Parliament of World Religions, 1893
The Bhagavad Gita
What was striking about the photographs by Lehnert and Landrock that we saw in class?
Who were some of the celebrities that practiced TM or met the Maharishi?
Explain the connection between capitalism and the search for individual spirituality.
Both people in the West and people in the Far East often buy into the proposition that the East is the opposite of the West: not individualist, not materialist [note: this may be changing with Chinese economic expansion], not rationalist.
Chinese PR films
the Yellow Peril
"Invented tradition serves to increase the cultural capital of the oriental nation." Apply this to a Far Eastern nation.
Connect the historic "yellow peril" phobia with current notions of how cheap Chinese products are overrunning the world.
In the Hegelo-Darwinist scheme of evolution, Africans and other “tribal” peoples represent the earliest point, where "Man" lives in nature in an unreflecting way, and is only beginning to be constrained by culture.
"Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
Drew Ali and the Moorish Science Temple of America
"Othello or The Moor of Venice"
Portia and the King of Morocco in Shakespeare's "Merchant of Venice"
serfdom and slavery
Who first clamed, and who finally proved, where the source of the Nile was?
How did Hegelo-Darwinism, which does not have a theory of degeneration, contribute to a fear of cultural and racial degeneration that was common in nineteenth and early twentieth-century Europe?
What can we blame Herbert Spencer for but arguably not Darwin?
How would you explain why the Sahara became a demarkation between enslavable and not enslavable populations, after centuries of Europeans and North Africans enslaving each other?
A Rousseauan view of the state of nature would encourage a romantic view of the "savage" as peaceful and naively loving, while a Hobbesian view would encourage viewing "natives" as violent and selfish. Explain why.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Karl Marx, "The Jewish Question," 1843
Aamir Mufti, Enlightenment in the Colony
partition (of peoples and countries, Middle East, South Asia)
Synagogues in Islamic-inspired style ("Moorish-style synagogues")
Lazarus and Steinthal
Evaluate the notion that Qutb's work represents strictly traditional Islam.
In what sense are the notions of "Jew" and "Arab" racializations of religon? In what historical context were they racialized?
What did Hegel think of Islam? (Relate this to his ideas about a. Jewish and b. Germanic religion.)
What did Lazarus think of the notion of nation? (Question based on reading.)
Alessandro Valignano (1539-1606)
Old and New Testaments / Hebrew and Greek Bible
Qur'an and the Bible
Muhammad (7th century)
Jesus (of Nazareth, Savior from Sin and "Death," sacrificed himself to take away people's sinfulness, so people are not punished)
"turning the other cheek"
primal or "obscene" Father
Israel (a. Jacob in the Bible, b. his descendants, c. the Christian Church as the "New Israel")
the Law (in the Bible and in psychoanalysis)
What was Valignano's objection to the previous Jesuit leader in Japan?
Why did the Japanese put an end to the Jesuit control of Nagasaki?
In class it was suggested that the notion that the actors of history are imagined descent groups derives from the Bible. Explain.
"To Christianity, Judaism and Islam represent the Law untempered by Love." Explain this. Relate to the more general question as to whether our experience in the world is one of being loved. Explain how the notion that in Christianity Judaism and Islam represent unloving universes might have contributed to the force of antisemitism and Islamophobia.
Edward Said, Orientalism (1978)
Margaret Mead, Coming of Age in Samoa (1928)
John Derek Freeman, Margaret Mead in Samoa: the Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth (1983)
soft and hard orientalism
"orientalism" (scholarly discipline)
What does "identity" mean to you? What does it mean to Najda Said?
Romantic (soft) orientalism can be condemned as well. How so?
Give some examples from this class where western reports on the non-West were meant to and/or did serve as a critique of the West.
What was typically "vulgar Saidist" (in the instructor's opinion) about George Yancy's analysis of the "Hottentot Venus" story?
Can you draw parallels between Said's critiques of orientalism and the feminist critiques of partriarchy at the time when Orientalism was published?
Unity Marches, France, January 2015
Greeks and Persians
The Western and Eastern Roman Empires
1453 Ottoman conquest of Constantinople
1494 Treaty of Tordesillas
Vasco da Gama
Jesuits and Dominicans
late eighteenth century Britain begins to dominate India
1830 Algeria a French possession
the "age of imperialism"
forced immigration: slaves and indentured laborers
"The West" is an unclear concept. Explain.
Did the Greeks think they were "western"? Did they consider Persians to be more barbaric than Europeans?
In what country did the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen" (1789) originate?
During the Age of Imperialism (late nineteenth and early twentieth century), what area did the term "Orient" evoke more than any other?
Related Spain's rule of the Netherlands to the fact that the Netherlands became a great colonial power.
Relate Russian history to the history of imperialism.
How do you explain the fact that the much of the Enlightenment declared human equality to be a value, and that the French Revolution celebrated "liberty, equality, fraternity," yet some of the participants justified slavery? Can you relate this to the case of the Hottentot Venus?